Schematic showing the ultrafast photonic PCR using LED lights under a thin gold film to amplify genetic samples. The repeated heating and cooling process, called thermal cycling, is needed to separate the double-stranded DNA (1-Denaturation). Complementary bases from a primer then bind to the single strand (2-Annealing and extension), resulting in two copies of the gene. The process is repeated for at least 30 cycles. (Image by Jun Ho Son)

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